In creating the framework, we drew on a range of literature and interviews with teachers and teacher educators who work with multilingual pedagogies and in the field of GCE. Below is a list of the main literature sources that provide background to this framework.

Useful journal articles and book chapters for typologies of Global Citizenship Education 

Blackmore, C. (2016). Towards a pedagogical framework for global citizenship education. International Journal of Development Education and Global Learning8(1), 39-56.

Pashby, K., da Costa, M., Stein, S., & Andreotti, V. (2020). A meta-review of typologies of global citizenship education. Comparative Education56(2), 144-164.

Sun X. (2020). Towards a common framework for global citizenship education: A critical review of UNESCO’s conceptual framework of global citizenship education. In Zhu X., Li J., Li M., Liu Q., Starkey H. (Eds.). Education and mobilities. Perspectives on rethinking and reforming education. Springer.

Useful references on Global Citizenship Education

Concord Europe. (2018). Global citizenship education in Europe: How much do we care?. Concord Europe.

Global Education Week Network. (2012). Global education guidelines: Concepts and methodologies on global education for educators and policy makers. North-South Centre for Council of Europe.

Guo, L. (2014). Preparing to educate teachers for 21st century global citizenship: Envisioning and enacting. Journal of Global Citizenship and Equity Education, 4(1), 1-23.

Longview Foundation (2008). Teacher preparation for the global age: The imperative for change. Retrieved January 5, 2021, from

Lopez, A. A., Turkan, S., & Guzman-Orth, D. (2016). Assessing multilingual competence. In E. Shohamy, E., Or I., May S. (Eds.). Language testing and assessment. Encyclopedia of language and education. Springer.

Reysen, S., & Katzarska-Miller, I. (2013). A model of global citizenship: Antecedents and outcomes. International Journal of Psychology, 48(5), 858-870.

Zhao, Y. (2010). Preparing globally competent teachers: A new imperative for teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education61(5), 422-431.

Useful references on Multilingualism

Aronin, L., & Singleton, D. (2008). Multilingualism as a new linguistic dispensation. International Journal of Multilingualism5(1), 1-16.   

Boeckmann, Klaus-Börge & Aalto, Eija & Abel, Andrea & Atanasoska, Tatjana & Lamb, Terry. (2011). Promoting plurilingualism – Majority language in multilingual settings. European Centre for Modern Languages.

Cenoz, J. (2013). Defining multilingualism. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics33, 3-18.  

Edwards, J. (1994). Multilingualism. Routledge.

Haukås, A. (2016). Teachers’ beliefs about multilingualism and a multilingual pedagogical approach. International Journal of Multilingualism, 13(1), 1-18,

Heller, M. (2007). Bilingualism as ideology and practice. In Heller M. (Eds.). Bilingualism: A social approach. Palgrave Macmillan.

Piller, I. (2016). Monolingual ways of seeing multilingualism. Journal of Multicultural Discourses, 11(1), 25-33,  

Wei, L., & Hua, Z. (2010). Voices from the diaspora: Changing hierarchies and dynamics of Chinese multilingualism. International Journal of The Sociology of Language2010(205).

Resources for teachers from the ROMtels project:

Guidance handbooks, ROMtels. (2021). Retrieved 10 May 2021, from